Thermodynamic chemistry

System – It is the part of universe under study in definite conditions of pressure, volume and temperature or in other words, we can define as that portion of matter under study which is separated from rest of universe with the bounding surface if system consist one or more substances. Read More …

What is salt hydrolysis and degree of hydrolysis

Salt hydrolysis The interaction between ions of salt and water to give free H+ and OH- making the solution acidic, alkaline or even keeping it neutral is called hydrolysis.  In the given pdf we have provided you the content like degree of hydrolysis, salt of strong acid and strong base, Read More …

Nernst heat theorem

The Nernst heat theorem was formulated by Walter Nernst early in 20th century and was used in development of third law of thermodynamics. Theorem- The Nernst theorem says that as absolute zero is approached, the entropy change ΔS for a chemical or physical transformation approaches 0. This can be expressed Read More …

Third law of thermodynamics

The results of Nernst heat theorem let to generalized and called third law of thermodynamics. The third law of thermodynamics may be stated as follows – “Entropy of perfectly crystalline solid may be taken as zero at absolute zero temperature.” In other words it may be stated as – “Every Read More …

Buffer solution

A solution which resists any change in its pH value on addition of small amount of acid or base is called a buffer solution. In the pdf we have given characteristics of buffer solution, types of buffer solution, calculation of pH of a buffer mixture and numerical problems. Click here Read More …