New National Education Policy 2020 Of India

The Union Cabinet of India approved the New National Education Policy 2020 of India on 29 July 2020, After the gap of 34 years, framed in 1986. The policies are special since it is the First Educational Policy of the century in India and alters the traditional and outdated thirty- four years old National Education Policy since the year 1986.

The policy is comprehensive, holistic, far sighted and will certainly play a great role in the nation’s future growth of the nation.

The main focus of the National Education Policy 2020 to transformation of reforms in school and higher education systems in India.
Besides These, The Cabinet has also approved the renaming of the Ministry of Human Resource Development to the Ministry of Education.

How Implementation of National Education Policy

This is a Policy , not a law and Since education is a concurrent subject (both the Centre and the state governments can make laws on it), the reforms proposed can only be implemented collaboratively by the Centre and the states. This will not happen immediately. The incumbent government has set a target of 2040 to implement the entire policy. Sufficient funding is also crucial; the 1968 NEP was hamstrung by a shortage of funds.

The government plans to set up subject-wise committees with members from relevant ministries at both the central and state levels to develop implementation plans for each aspect of the NEP. 

Evolution Of National Education Policy in India

  • The University Education Commission in ( 1948-49 ).
  • Secondary Education Commission in ( 1952-53 )
  • Education Commission in ( 1964-66 ) under Dr. D.S Kothari.
  • National Policy of Education in 1968, passed by parliament ( First National Education Policy)
  • 42nd Constitutnal Amendment, 1976 – Education in Concurrent List
  • National Policy on Education (NPE) in 1986 ( Second NEP )
  • NPE 1986 modified in 1992 ( Programme of Action 1992 )
  • Committee for Evolution of the New Education Policy under the Chairmanship of Late Shri T.S.R Subramanian Submitted it’s Report in May 2016.
  • The Ministry announced the formation of new committee.

Background Aspects of ( NEP )

The Committee of Draft National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 was Constituted by Ministery of Human Resource Development in June 2017.
The Draft Committee submitted its report on May 31, 2019 headed by Dr. K. Kasturirangan.

The Draft National Education Policy 2019 was shared by the MHRD (Ministry of Human Resource Development) for Public Comments.

The Third National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 Approved by Union Cabinet Of India.

Some of the Biggest Highlights of the NEP 2020 are

  1. A single regulator for higher education institutions,
  2. Multiple entry and exit options in degree courses,
  3. Discontinuation of MPhil programmes,
  4. Low stakes board exams,
  5. Common entrance exams for universities.

Main Features of New National Education Policy 2020 Of India

Changes In School Education

  • The Universalization of Education form preschool to secondary level with 100% Gross Enrollment Ratio ( GER ) in school Education by 2030.
  • By Open Schooling System to bring 2 Crore School Children Back into the Mainstream.
  • The New Education Policy expands age group 6-14 years of mandatory schooling to 3-18 years of schooling.
  • The NEP introduces hitherto uncovered three years of pre-schooling, age group of 3-6 years under the school curriculum.
  • The new system will have 12 years of schooling with three years of Anganwadi/ pre-schooling.
  • The Current structure of school 10 + 2 System replaced by 5+3+3+4 curricular structure corresponding to ages
    • 3-8 years ( Foundational Stage ),
    • 8-11 years ( Preparotary Stage ),
    • 11-14 years ( Middle Stage ) and
    • 14-18 years ( Secondary Stage ) respectively.
  • Students of Class 10 and 12 Board Examinations will Allowed to take the exam twice, for making study easier.
  • Reduction in the burdensome syllabus, focus on Vocational Education and Environmental Education are crucial aspects well covered by NEP. 
  • Vocational Education to start from Class 6 With Intenship.
  • A National Book Promotion Policy is to be formulated.
  • Setting up a National Mission on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy is a much needed, timely step to improve the quality of education at the primary education level. 
  • The Teaching up at least Grade 5 to be in Mother Tongue or Regional Language. The NEP only recommends the mother tongue as medium of instruction, and No Language will be imposed on any Students.
  • All the students will take school examinations in Grade 3, 5, 8 which will be conducted under overseeing an appropriate authority. Board exams in classes 10th and 12th shall continue, but shall be redesigned with holistic development as the claim.
  • School Governance is set a change, with a new accreditation framework and an independent authority to regulate both Private and Public Schools.
  • Tracking Student Progress by 360 Degree Holistic Progress Card for achieving Learning Outcomes.
  • New Comprehensive National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education ( NCFTE ) 2021, will be formulated by the National Council for Teacher Education ( NCTE ) in consultation with National Council of Educational Research and Training ( NCERT ).
  • The minimum degree qualifications for teaching will be 4 year integrated B.ED Degree by 2030.

Changes of Higher Education

  • The current Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) Of Higher Education of 26.3% will be raised to be 50% By 2030.
  • The NEP, undergraduate degree will be of either 3 or 4-year duration with multiple exit options within this period.
  • College will be mandated to give certificate after completing 1 year in a discipline or field including vocational and professional areas, a diploma after 2 years of study, or a Bachelor’s degree after a 3-year programme.
  • Academic Bank of Credits to be established to facilitate Transfer of Credits.
  • National Research Foundation will be credited as an apex body for fostering a strong research culture and building research capacity across higher education.
  • Higher Education Commission of India(HECI) will be set up as a single overarching umbrella body for entire higher education, excluding medical and legal education. 
    • Public and private higher education institutions will be governed by the same set of norms for regulation, accreditation and academic standards. Also, HECI will be having four independent verticles namely,
      • National Higher Education Regulatory Council (NHERC) for regulation.
      • General Education Council (GEC) for standard setting.
      • Higher Education Grants Council (HEGC) for funding.
      • National Accreditation Council (NAC) for accreditation.
  • Affiliation of colleges is to be phased out in 15 years and a stage-wise mechanism is to be established for granting graded autonomy to colleges
  • The globalization of education to be assisted with the help of both institutional collaborations and student and faculty mobility and allowing entry of top-ranked universities to open campuses in India.

Other Changes

  • Every state/district shall be supported to create a ”Bal Bhavan”  a special day-time boarding school, for the benefit of students to contribute to art-related, career-related, and play-related activities. Further, Samajik Chetna Kendras shall be built out of the free school infrastructure.
  • New National Assessment center to be set up namely as PAREKH i.e. Performance, Assessment, Review, and Analysis of Knowledge to ensure holistic development of the students.
  • National Educational Technology Forum ( NETF), will be created to provide a platform for the free exchange of ideas on the use of technology to enhance the learning, assessment, planning and Administration.
  • The Special Education for disadvantaged regions and group to setting up of Gender Inclusion Fund.
  • New Policy Promotes Multilingualism for both schools and higher Education. National Institutions of Pali, Prakrit and Persian, Indian Institute of Translation and Interpretation to be set up.
  • NEP also focused to increase the Public Investment in Education Sector to reach 6% of GDP. India Spends around 4.6 % of GDP in Education Sector, Currently.


The policy aims at making “India a global knowledge superpower”. The policy also helps to aims at “light but tight” regulation by a single regulator for higher education as well as o increased access, equity, and inclusion. The new education policy has a commendable vision, but its potency will depend on whether it is able to effectively integrate with the government’s other policy initiatives — Digital India, Skill India and the New Industrial Policy to name a few — in order to effect a coherent structural transfiguration.

For instance, policy linkages can ensure that education policy speaks to and learns from Skill India’s experience in engaging more dynamically with the private sector to shape vocational education curricula in order to make it a success.

The New National Education Policy 2020, is a commendable step by the government to achieve the goal of providing quality education and having a skillful, talented, and professional youth population. Learning systems like online learning and digital courses are also being encouraged. Lastly, it also lies emphasis on learning and preserving traditional languages like Sanskrit in India which are losing fast.

There is also a need for more evidence-based decision-making, to adapt to rapidly evolving shifts and disruption. NEP has encouragingly provisioned for real-time evaluation systems and a consultative monitoring framework. This shall enable the education system to constantly reform itself, instead of waiting for a new education policy every decade for a shift in curriculum. This, in itself, will be a remarkable achievement.

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