Modern Social Security System Of England
Second World War integration of many problem and need was felt to bring in new legislative step for the solution of the problems.
The main in the regard were the result of Beveridge Report.
Second World War itself England brought about revolutionary changes in its social welfare programs and in 1941 and inter departmental Commission torrent and allied service was appointed under Sir William Beveridge. It was assigned the function of conducting a comprehensive survey of the structure and capabilities of the British social service and to make recommendations.
This Commission put forward and that in addition to needs 4 giant evils disease ignorance squalor and idleness are major hurdles in the area of human welfare.
The Beveridge Report recommended a comprehensive system of social security whose main aim was to guarantee to every citizen with his Corporation a minimum level of basic income.
Based on this view a social security system comprising 5 program was
- Social insurance
- Public assistance
- Children allowance which was renamed our family allowance
- Comprehensive free Health and Rehabilitation service
- Maintenance of full employment
So many Principles were accepted for the implementation of the programs
- United administration
- Comprehensive coverage
- Flat rate of contribution
- Flat rate off benefits
- Adequacy of all benefit to meet basic needs of the recipients
- Classification of population.
Although Beveridge Report recommends six categories but National Insurance act 1946 reduced these to three categories.
The current social security structure of Britain is based on this report.
The main Programms under the social security system are
- National Insurance ( industrial injuries) act 1945 it on comprehensive social Insurance Scheme.
- Family pension under the family allowance act 1945
- Public assistance program under the National Insurance act 1948 As A supplementary programme.
- Public health service under National Health Service act 1946
The Insured Population was divided into three categories
- Employed person
- Self employed persons, members of the profession, independent artist and artisans.
- Unemployment persons, mainly married women who were living in their homes
The amendments were made periodically in these laws and needed changes were affected in various social security programms. The social security Benefit Act 1975 bought about a comprehensive social security programme for the citizens of England. The area of community service, Health Services, housing, education, entertainment and workmen’s Cooperative service committee were constituted. Many New laws were in the area of labour welfare. In the area of correction also many laws were passed.